Arthur was substituted after he was injured in a horror tackle by Honduras' Romell Quioto in Brazil's final friendly before the Copa America.
The Barcelona midfielder had to be carried off the field after Quioto caught him with a high, late, two-footed challenge on Sunday at Estadio Beira-Rio.
Brazil are already without their star forward Neymar for the tournament on home soil after he damaged his right ankle in a warm-up game against Qatar.
Chelsea winger Willian was called up as the replacement for Neymar rather than the Real Madrid winger Vinicius Junior.
Head coach Tite will require a quick diagnosis on Arthur as Brazil are set to begin their campaign against Bolivia on Friday.
Brazil led Honduras 3-0 at half-time despite losing Arthur to injury with Gabriel Jesus, Thiago Silva and Philippe Coutinho all on target.