Yang Qian is the first gold medallist at Tokyo 2020.
The Chinese shooter won the women's 10-metre air rifle despite saving her worst shot of the competition for last.
The 21-year-old trailed Anastasiia Galashina, competing for the Russian Olympic Committee, by 0.2 points entering the final shot at the Asaka Shooting Range, but Galashina missed badly, scoring 8.9.
Yang had scored at least 10 points on every shot up to her last, but her 9.8 was still enough to take gold with an Olympic record 251.8 as Galashina finished with 251.1.
Nina Christen of Switzerland took bronze with a final score of 230.6.